Number references consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals (in parentheses). References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the table or illustration.
Use abbreviations for titles of medical journals that conform to those in Index Medicus. Avoid using abstracts as references whenever possible; “unpublished observations” and “personal communication” may not be used as references, although references to written, not verbal, communications may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Include among the references manuscripts accepted but not yet published; designate the journal followed by “in press.” Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references, which must be verified against original sources in the typescript and on the page proof. Examples of correct forms of references are given below.
Standard Journal Article. (List all authors, but when 7 or more, list 6 and add “et al”.) Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF. Cold urticaria: release into the circulation of histamine and eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis during cold challenge. N Engl J Med 1976;294:687-90.
The Journal of Rheumatology Supplement. Dawkins RL, Garlepp MJ, McDonald BL, Williamson J, Zilko PJ, Carrano J. Myasthenia gravis and D-penicillamine. J Rheumatol Suppl 1981 Feb;8:169-72.
Supplements in Other Journals. Kimura A, Kitamura H, Date Y, Numano F. Comprehensive analysis of HLA genes in Takayasu arteritis in Japan. Int J Cardiol Suppl 1996;54 Suppl 1:61-9.
E-publication. Kojima M, Kojima T, Suzuki S, Takahashi N, Funahashi K, Asai S, et al. Patient-reported outcomes as assessment tools and predictors of long-term prognosis: a 7-year follow-up study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Rheum Dis 2015 Nov 6 (E-pub ahead of print).
Corporate Author. The Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gamma-glutamyl-transferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.
Editorial. Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. BMJ 1981;283:628.
Letter to the Editor. Gardner GC, Lawrence MK. Polyarteritis nodosa confined to calf muscles [letter]. Pedrol E, Garcia F, Casademont J [reply]. J Rheumatol 1993;20:908-9.
Abstract. Fischman SA, Joiner KA. Binding of the 3rd component of complement C3 by toxoplasma gondi [abstract]. Clin Res 1987;35:475A.
Chapter in Book. Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathogenic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, editors. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1974:457-72
Personal Book Author(s). Osler AG. Complement: mechanisms and functions. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1976. Corporate Book Author. American Medical Association Department of Drugs. AMA Drug Evaluations. 3rd ed. Littleton: Publishing Sciences Group; 1977.
Published Proceedings Paper. DuPont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White HJ, Smith R, editors. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology, 1973, Oct 29-31; Houston: International Society for Experimental Hematology; 1974:44-6.
Agency Publication. National Center for Health Statistics. Acute conditions: incidence and associated disability. United States, July 1968-June 1969. Rockville: National Center for Health Statistics; 1972; DHEW publication no. (HSM)72-1036. (Vital and health statistics; series 10, no. 69).
Dissertation or Thesis. Cairns RB. Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen [dissertation]. Berkeley: University of California; 1965, 156 p.
Newspaper Article. Shaffer RA. Advances in chemistry are starting to unlock mysteries of the brain: discoveries could help cure alcoholism and insomnia, explain mental illness. How the messengers work. Wall Street Journal 1977 Aug 13; sect. A: 1 (col.1), 10 (col.1).
Magazine Article. Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus culture. The New Yorker 1971 Sep 4:66-81.
Article in a Foreign Language. Rijkenberg AM, van Sprundel M, Stassijns G. [Collaboration between occupational physicians and other specialists including insurance physicians]. [Article in German] Versicherungsmedizin 2013;65:140-5.
Website. Cancer-Pain. Quality of life issues. [Internet. Accessed September 23, 2014.] Available from: www.cancer-pain.org/understanding/quality.html